K46 Отче Нашъ
для церковнаго обихода – Pater noster pour chœur mixte a cappella – Pater noster für [vierstimmig] gemischten Chor a cappella – Pater noster for mixed choir a cappella – Pater noster per coro misto [a quattro voci] a cappella
Text: ‘Pater noster’ (after the evangelist Matthew 6.9-13) is the incipit of the ‘ oratio dominica ’, the prayer of the Lord. In the Western Church, it was already being used at the time of St. Augustine, and in the Eastern Church at the time of St. Cyrill of Jerusalem. In both churches, it has its central liturgical place in the Mass: in the practice of the West since Gregory the Great, it comes directly after the canonic High Prayer; in the Eastern practice, it comes either before or, as in Nestorian and Coptic practice, after the Breaking of the Bread, but also in the Office since Breviary Pius V of 1568, before Matins, Lauds (in case Lauds is separate from Matins), the Minor Hours and Vespers, at the beginning of Compline and at the end of entire Office and the Minor Hours, if it represents the end and does not continue into other prayers. Apart from that, it is used at Last Anointment, the Commendatio Animae, at the Exequies, in rosary prayer, at Baptism and at other liturgical and non-liturgical places. The performance practice has changed in many ways in the course of the history of the liturgy. In the Tridentine tradition, the priest prays with it as a representative of the congregation, although there are also choral settings in many parts in the Roman rite. After the Second Vatican Council, the Pater Noster became a congregational prayer. In the Eastern rite, it was always thus, and was prayed by the congregation or sung by the choir.
Sung text: >Pater noster, qui es in caelis: sanctificetur nomen tuum. Adveniat regnum tuum. Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie. Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. / Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, / sed libera nos a malo. Amen.< [Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.*]
* King James Bible.
Source: Holy Scripture after the evangelist Matthew Mt 6:9-13.
Construction: The motet is a formalised, four-part unaccompanied choral work at a length of 37 bars (Church-Slavonic original version) or 45 bars (Latin version); it is only given a metronome mark in the Latin version, and often changes meter according to the declamation. – Using the number of references to ‘Our Father’ as a basis, the motet is in ten sections in Church-Slavonic and eleven parts in Latin as a result of the additional ‘Amen’. The sections are constructed using three arch-shaped patterns of recitation which are repeated partly in separate blocks and partly in different orders. In addition, the patterns of recitation are used for the entry and, (only) in the Latin version, for the ‘Amen’.
( 1.) A = A : I
( 2.) B = B : II
( 3.) C = B : II
( 4.) D = B : II
( 5.) E = E : III
( 6.) F = E : III
( 7.) G = E : III
( 8.) H = H : IV
( 9.) I = E : III
(10.) J = E : III
(11.) K = K : V
For both versions, different bar, and therefore overall, lengths arise because of the different lengths of the words and sentences between the old Slavonic and the Latin ‘Our Father’. For the same reason, Strawinsky had to calculate the meters for the two languages differently. Thus, four quavers in one language become two crochets in the other, six quavers become seven quavers, four quavers become three, a minim becomes two crochets and so forth. The minims, which are used more often in the Church-Slavonic version as the notes for the ends of sections, are normally realized in the Latin version in shorter note values and, in addition, gain a breath mark. The strongly syllabic setting is interrupted in both versions by two-note melismas at textually significant points (Latin version: bar 9: ‘ad-veniat’ [The Kingdom of God ‘may come’], bar 13: ‘fi-at’ [The Will of God ‘may come to pass’]). In spite of this, it must be assumed, considering the two-note melismas which are found more frequently in the Church-Slavonic version, that it is not a question of textual interpretation, rather a question of the compositional principle of avoiding leaps. This was conventional in religious vocal compositions, especially in old classical polyphony, in order to create a sung line which is as soft and gently flowing as possible. For the same reason, the range of the vocal parts is kept narrow. The soprano (B flat – E flat) and the alto (E flat – A flat) parts do not exceed a fourth, but the tenor range (A-E flat) is extended by a semi-tone and the bass only is more expansive (G-f). In the two upper parts, there is not a single leap, and in the tenor, only a few. The bass line is an exception for structural reasons and interrupts flowing passages with one or several consecutive leaps.
a) Church-Slavonic version
[without metronome marking] (37 Bars; c minor)
b) Latin Version
Crotchet = 72 (45 bars; c minor)
Style: The Pater noster is set syllabically and in a style of chordal recitation without melodic line as such; there are however certain exceptions, more commonly in the Church-Slavonic version than in the Latin version, for melodic, though presumably not textual, reasons. The proximity to the setting of the language in formalised Byzantine Church music can be clearly heard. In comparison with the two following motets, Credo and Ave Maria, the setting of the Pater noster corresponds clearly to that of the Credo. The motet, which is kept in the minor key, avoids harmonic piquancy and, in Church-Slavonic style, ends in pure C minor, in Latin on a bare C, without chordal realisation. In the Latin version, section I begins with the word ‘sed’ at the end of section C (transition bar 39 – 40).
Performance practice: The Pater noster is a supplicatory prayer of trust and belief. Strawinsky achieved less with his gentler manner of performance than Ernest Ansermet, who created the style of a rather hard, rhythmic, sharply intoned and also virtuosic Strawinsky. Ansermet’s contours can be related to the Pater Noster just as much as it can be to Byzantine solemnity. In both cases, a stylistically impressive and valid tonal palate is seen. It does not however correspond to Strawinsky’s religious thinking. The religious supplicant is neither hardened nor pathetic nor made more solemn; he opens himself and begins a dialogue, which is prayer. To this extent, Strawinsky’s own gentle, cautious, rather still interpretation is closer to the meaning of the work. The many changes in meter also do not serve the rhythmic impulse for effect, rather they arise inevitably from the flow of the language. The liturgical text must only be understood and examined closely in a measured fashion. Everything which can be inferred in the interpretation of what is understood and measured, referring back to the work itself or from an intoxication transferring the thought on to the substance, misses the religious meaning. The Pater Noster is not an opportunity for artistic effect, by this conviction. Strawinsky would not tolerate any expressivity in the setting of his church-music motets, as he associated mawkishness and sentimentality with it.
Dedication: no known at present.
Duration: about 1’ 34“ (Church-Slavonic version).
Date of origin: Church-Slavonic version: 1926; Latin version: [February] March 1949.
First performance: Pater Noster, Credo and Ave Maria were premièred under Strawinsky’s baton at a memorial concert to the memory of the American composer, Blaire Fairchild, who died on 23rd April 1933 in Paris, on 18th May 1934, in the Salle Gaveau in Paris under the joint title ‘Trois Chants d’église’. Strawinsky explained however that he had heard the motets for the first time during the Mass for the Dead for his cousin Beliankin in a Russian Orthodox Church in Paris.
Remarks: Strawinsky seemed fairly excited about the American edition and the preceding article that would go with it. The New York branch of Boosey & Hawkes had enquired of him in all seriousness of the name of the author of the text for the ‘Our Father’ prayer, so that it could be put on the title page of the score. He found the border of the front page, consisting of stylised singing heads with mouths torn open, abhorrent. On his received copy, he therefore wrote in his commented complimentary copy the margin: ‘What a stupid decor!’. The entire series is produced in this design, which appears “Kitsch” to European eyes.
Significance: The Pater Noster was the first publicly given sign of Strawinsky’s new thinking. The avoidance of belief normally begins with the conscious or gradual abandonment of the ability or will to partake in prayer, which is the dialogue between Man and God. His return to it is therefore also the first step to reversal. In this way, Strawinsky introduced these works, consciously motivated by religion, with a setting of the most important prayer of Christianity, the Lord’s Prayer, the ‘Our Father’. What also supports this meaning is the fact that sketches for the composition of a church prayer, which were found in his estate, reached back to the year 1930, but were not realized. According to this, Strawinsky was consciously looking for a prayer years before the Pater Noster which corresponded with his state of belief and ended his search with the setting of the ‘Our Father’. The next step of the avoidance of belief is denial. Accordingly, the next step for the return is its avowal to others. The setting of the Credo as the next choral motet is therefore consequently given.
Latin adaptation: In the correspondence, there is a small note on the adaptation of the work into Latin. In his letter to Robert Craft on 22nd March 1949, he states that he had just made a final Latin version of Pater Noster and Ave Maria. Both manuscripts in the meanwhile would be in the hands of the publishers Boosey & Hawkes. It may be noteworthy that the Latin versions were the result of longer consideration. The problems which are mentioned here were presumably a result of the adjusted word setting and therefore the use of accents in the new setting; in the case of the Ave Maria, they were a result of the longer text of the Latin version, especially the realisation of the meaning of the text through the use of corresponding motific patterns.
Versions: The Pater Noster, which is only accessible to choirs who can sing in Russian, was published in 1932 by the Russian Music publishers and was a failure for them. In 1932, 14 copies were sold and up to 1938, only 88 were sold worldwide, almost half of which were in France. The transfer of the contract to the publishers Boosey & Hawkes took place on 6th November 1950. This edition, with the Russian (Church-Slavonic) text, was republished in 1967 by Boosey & Hawkes with a new plate number. In March 1949, Strawinsky completed a version with the Latin text. It was published in 1949 by Boosey & Hawkes in New York and in 1953 by Boosey & Hawkes in London. The American contributed copy was received by Strawinsky on 23rd November 1949. In Germany, there was also an edition published of the Latin version in 1957. The Church-Slavonic editions all contained a transliteration, and the Latin editions normally contained a piano part intended exclusively for rehearsal purposes and which may not be played under any circumstances as an instrumental accompaniment to a performance.
Historical recordings: New York April 1949, Latin version, with the choir of the Church of the Blessed Sacrament under the direction of Igor Strawinsky; Toronto 8th Mai 1964, Church-Slavonic version*, Festival Singers of Toronto trained by the director Elmer Iseler, under the direction of Igor Strawinsky
* The accompanying booklet for the CD prints the Latin text, but it is sung in Church-Slavonic.
CD-Edition: XI-1/10 (Recording 1964).
Autographe: Neat copies of both versions are stored in the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel.
Copyright: 1932 (Church-Slavonic version) by Russischer Musikverlag, 1947 assigned to Boosey & Hawkes; 1949 (Latin version) by Boosey & Hawkes New York.
46-1 1932 ChSc Church Slavonic; Russischer Musikverlag Berlin; 3 pp.; R. M. V. 545.
46-2 1949 ChSc Latin, American edition; Boosey & Hawkes New York; 6 pp.; – .
46-2Strawibd. (with annotations)
46-3 1950 ChSc Latin, English edition; Boosey & Hawkes London; 6 pp.; B. & H. 16974.
46-4 [1 956 ] ChSc Latin, German edition; Boosey & Hawkes Bonn; 6 pp.; B. & H. 16974.
46-4Strawibd. (with annotations)
46-5 1967 ChSc; Church Slavonic; Boosey & Hawkes London; 4 pp.; B. & H. 19595.
b) Characteristic features
46-1ИГОРЬ СТРАВИНСКЇЙ / ОтЧе Нашъ / для церковнаго обихода / [vignette] / россійское / музыкальное издательство // IGOR STRAWINSKY / PATER NOSTER / pour chœur mixte a capella / Prix: RM. 1. = / Frs. 1. = * / ÉDITION RUSSE DE MUSIQUE / (RUSSISCHER MUSIKVERLAG G. M. B. H.** / FONDÉE PAR S. ET N. KOUSSEVITZKY / BERLIN · LEIPZIG · PARIS · MOSCOU · LONDRES · NEW YORK · BUENOS AIRES / S. I. M. A. G. - Asnières-Paris. / 2 et 4, Avenue de la Marne – XXXII // (Choral score 18.4 x 27.4 (8° [Lex. 8°]); sung text in Church Slavonic with a transliteration for English speakers alongside it ; 3  pages + title page thin cardboard in ornamental letters in old Russian red-black on white-yellow [front cover title in an ornamental frame with very distorted fancy lettering*** and a vignette 2 x 2 of the Maltese Cross with convex ends] + 1 page back matter [table of French pronunciation of Latin transliteration letters >Notice sur la transcription latine<]; title head >„ ОтЧе Нашъ “ / для церковнаго обихода<;author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 below title head flush right centred >ИГОРЬ СТРАВИНСКIЙ / 1926<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 below title head flush right centred > ÈÃÎÐÜ ÑÒÐÀÂÈÍÑÊIÉ / 1926 <; legal reservations without Copyright 1st page of the score below type area flush left centred >Propriété de l'Editeur pour tous pays / Edition Russe de Musique / Russischer Musikverlag G.m.b.H. Berlin.< flush right >TOUS DROITS D'EXÉCUTION, DE REPRODUCTION ET / D'ARRANGEMENTS RESERVÉS POUR TOUS PAYS.<; plate number >R. M. V. 545<; production indications p. 3 flush left centred as end mark >S. I. M. A. G. - Asnières-Paris. / 2 et 4, Avenue de la Marne – XXXII< flush right >GRANDJEAN GRAV.<) // (1932)
* The currency units appear one directly above the other.
** G.M.B.H. is printed in smaller letters whereas B. and H. are printed below the G. and M.
*** Using accent signs; the initials of the two-part main title printed in red script.
46-2 1833 [#] S. A. T. B. [#] 18c / PATER NOSTER / New Version With Latin Text/ by/ IGOR STRAWINSKY / [°] Boosey & Hawkes// (Choral score with vocal score for rehearsal [piano part p. 2 preceding = preceding the 1st piano system on the first page] >For / rehearsal / only<] 17.3 x 26,2 (8° [Lex. 8°]); sung text Latin; 5  pages + 1 page front matter [ornamental title page black on cream white flush left continuous band border 25.3 x 5 + at the bottom a succinctly running border 16.7 x 1.2 with singers’ heads with their mouths wide open **] + 1 page back matter [page with (publisher’s) advertisements >Early Church Chorusses / Edited and Arranged/ by/ NOBLE CAIN<* without production data]; title head >PATER NOSTER<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 below title head flush right centred >IGOR STRAWINSKY / New version with Latin text<; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1949 in U. S. A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York. / Copyright in all Countries.< flush right >All Rights°° Reserved / Tous Droits Reservés<; marked sheet p. 3-5 below type area flush left >Pater noster 4<; without plate number; production indication 1st page of the score below type area centre inside right >Printed in U.S.A.<; without end mark; (1949)
° The London copy >1: F 1176.u.(9.)< (legal deposite blue 16.12. 49) has a stamp from left diagonally upwards at this point >MUSIC FOR COPYRIGHT PURPOSES ONLY<.
°° Original spelling
* 12 compositions are advertised without column divisions from >Miserere Mei° W. Byrd< bis >Ave Verum Corpus – (TTBB)°
Vittoria< [° Fill character (dotted line)].
** The standard decorative page for all editions in this series.
The copy in Strawinsky’s estate contains the dated signature >IStr / Nov 23/ °49< flush right on the outer title page between the 1st line and the title of the work, and along the band on the left the disgusted remark >What a stupid decor!<, and under the title of the work the partly underlined statement >I was asked, just before the printing / of it by B. & H. Inc. in N Y who is/ the author of this text– to print / his name on this score / IStr)< [ °slash original].
46-4 Winthrop Roger / Church Choral Series / Nr. 29 / Igor Strawinsky/ Pater Noster / für 4-stimmigen gemischten Chor / a cappella / Boosey & Hawkes // (Choral score 18 x 25.8 (8° [Lex. 8°]) with piano part for rehearsal only [piano part preceding = preceding the 1st piano system on the first page] >(nur zum / Einüben)<; sung text Latin; 6  pages without cover + 1 page front matter [title page black on white] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >BÉLA BARTOK / VOCAL AND CHORAL MUSIC / GESANG UND CHORWERKE · MUSIQUE POUR CHANT ET CHOEUR< production data >No. 778< [#] >3.55<]; title head >PATER NOSTER<; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 below title head flush right centred >IGOR STRAWINSKY / Neufassung with lat. Text<; legal reservation 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1949 in U.S.A. by Boosey & Hawkes Inc., New York. / Copyright in all countries. / All Rights° Reserved°<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area flush right >Printed in Germany<; plate number >B. & H. 16974<) // 
° Original spelling
46-5 Igor Stravinsky / „ ОтЧе НАшъ ” / для церковнаго обихода / Pater Noster / (Church Slavonic Version) / S.A.T.B. a capella / Boosey & Hawkes // Chorpartitur [library binding] 18.5 x 26 (8° [Lex. 8°]); sung text Russian with Transliterationsbelowlegung; 4  pages + 1 pages front matter [Titelei] + 1 page back matter [page with publisher’s advertisements >Igor Stravinsky< production data >No. 40< [#] >7.65<]; title head >„ ОтЧе НАшъ ” / для церковнаго обихода / Pater Noster / (Church Slavonic Version) / S. A. T. B. a capella <; author specified 1st page of the score paginated p. 2 next to and below last line title head flush right centred >IGOR STRAVINSKY / 1926<; legal reservations 1st page of the score below type area flush left >Copyright 1932 by Edition Russe de Musique / Copyright assigned 1947 to Boosey& Hawkes Inc. / for all countries< flush right >All rights reserved / Tonsättning forbjudes<; production indication 1st page of the score below type area below legal reservation flush right >Printed in England<; plate number >B. & H. 19595<; without end mark) // 
Compositions are advertised in two columns without edition numbers, without price informations and without specification of places of printing
>Operas and Ballets° / Agon [#] Apollon musagète / Le baiser de la fée [#] Le rossignol / Mavra [#] Oedipus rex / Orpheus [#] Perséphone / Pétrouchka [#] Pulcinella / The flood [#] The rake’s progress / The rite of spring° / Symphonic Works° / Abraham and Isaac [#] Capriccio pour piano et orchestre / Concerto en ré (Bâle) [#] Concerto pour piano et orchestre / [#] d’harmonie / Divertimento [#] Greetings°° prelude / Le chant du rossignol [#] Monumentum / Movements for piano and orchestra [#] Quatre études pour orchestre / Suite from Pulcinella [#] Symphonies of wind instruments / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine [#] Variations in memoriam Aldous Huxley / Instrumental Music° / Double canon [#] Duo concertant / string quartet [#] violin and piano / Epitaphium [#] In memoriam Dylan Thomas / flute, clarinet and harp [#] tenor, string quartet and 4 trombones / Elegy for J.F.K. [#] Octet for wind instruments / mezzo-soprano or baritone [#] flute, clarinet, 2 bassoons, 2 trumpets and / and 3 clarinets [#] 2 trombones / Septet [#] Sérénade en la / clarinet, horn, bassoon, piano, violin, viola [#] piano / and violoncello [#] / Sonate pour piano [#] Three pieces for string quartet / piano [#] string quartet / Three songs from William Shakespeare° / mezzo-soprano, flute, clarinet and viola° / Songs and Song Cycles° / Trois petites chansons [#] Two poems and three Japanese lyrics / Two poems of Verlaine° / Choral Works° / Anthem [#] A sermon, a narrative, and a prayer / Ave Maria [#] Cantata / Canticum
sSacrum [#] Credo / J. S. Bach: Choral-Variationen [#] Introitus in memoriam T. S. Eliot / Mass [#] Pater noster / Symphony of psalms [#] Threni / Tres sacrae cantiones°< [° centre centred; °° original mistake in the title].
K Catalog: Annotated Catalog of Works and Work Editions of Igor Strawinsky till 1971, revised version 2014 and ongoing, by Helmut Kirchmeyer.
© Helmut Kirchmeyer. All rights reserved.
http://www.kcatalog.org and http://www.kcatalog.net